CCTV Camera system or closed circuit television system is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific, limited set of monitors and at the same time recording and storing the acquired video streams. It differs from broadcasting on television in that the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may employ point to point p2p wireless links. CCTV is often used as surveillance camera in areas which need security, such as banks, casinos, and airports or military installations.
CCTV security camera is used in surveillance to monitor public or private areas that need to be monitored for security reasons. Modern security cameras use closed-circuit television (CCTV) technology, which employs video cameras that transmit signals to a specific limited set of monitors.
CCTV Camera System Purpose
CCTV system should not be perceived as a magic wand for preventing crime – it is just another crime prevention tool from a long list available to a business. There are many reasons why CCTV camera is the most cost effective security solution. In our experience we have found that most businesses suffer from the same few security problems like:
- Industrial Safety
- Premises Monitoring
- Shop Lifting
- Monitoring of high secured Zone
- Monitoring of Public Areas
- Worker Management
- Staff Collusion
- Staff Protection
- Car Park Security
- Deterrence Etc
CCTV Camera System Benefits
Statistics point to major reductions in the amount of crime being committed where there are cameras installed. An article in ‘New Scientist’ magazine showed that simply installing a system can reduce crime, in the areas covered, by over 95%. Generally, once a security camera system is installed, it will only be fools who attempt to perpetrate offences within its field of view. These are often caught but for the majority it will provide a very high level of deterrence. A professionally installed camera cctv system can reduce shoplifting by up to 90%.
Components of CCTV Camera System
A simple Analog CCTV System will consist of:
- Hard Disk for recording
- Wiring – for Video – Coaxial or CAT 5 (with video balun)
- Wiring – for power (not required iv video balun is used)
- Power Supply
- Connector – BNC or RJ45 (in case of video balun)
An IP CCTV Camera System will consist of:
- IP Camera
- NVR with video analytics
- Hard Disk raid enable.
- Wiring – for Video – CAT 5/CAT 5E / CAT6
- Wiring – for power
- Power Supply not required if POE switch used
- Switch / POE switch in case of POE used
- Connector – RJ45
Type of cctv camera and their Use
Dome Type CCTV Security Camera
Dome cameras typically are best choices whenever possible. When the camera is within someone’s reach domes cannot be easily manipulated or vandalized. Dome camera is installed easily in drop ceilings – usually 2 screws are required. Since a dome has a covered lens the direction the camera is pointing is hidden. Dome cctv camera can accommodate infra-red for night vision. Dome security camera are not always weather proof camera so these are not suited for outside peripherals. As the dome camera themselves are typically small the lens size are limited, Although some dome camera comes with vari-focal lens but the size are limited
Box Type CCTV Camera
Box camera are to be considered when we need to monitor a wall or any vertical area so these camera work as surveillance camera. This type of security cameras are used for long area viewing where a long lens is required which would not fit inside a dome or bullet camera. When extreme low light (moon light, or a very far street light) are not a consideration. Box camera comes with WDR and Day Night technology and these can incorporate various lens like Auto IRIS, Manual IRIS and Fixed IRIS etc. Box type cctv camera requires a housing for weather proofing and vandal proofing. When considering this camera accessories like lens, housing, stand etc are to be considered very carefully.
Infra Red or IR Bullet CCTV Camera
IR Bullet camera are to be considered when area to monitored is having extremely low light or pitch dark and also camera is also not within someone’s reach. The distance infra red camera can see are based upon its illumination capacity. Infra red camera have LED which cast out into darkness. The biggest disadvantage of Infra red led do have a limited life and led burns out in some time. When ever a infra red led is illuminated it turns the picture to black and white hence reducing the ability of recognition. These came have an advantage of in build IP 66 rated housing and comes with stand.
Pan Tilt & Zoom or PTZ CCTV Camera
PTZ security camera are best suited for patrol duty and open area application – Like border, Airport, Parking lot etc. When we want live control of the camera and adjusting the manual pan, tilt or zoom on a fixed camera is not practical. PTZ camera are used where a tour of the premises is required. We want to see the area from several angles from a single camera. The cost of a PTZ cctv camera is higher as compared to fixed cameras and sometimes it can vary 5-10 times of a fixed camera.